FATE TWISTER
The Story of Wayne Gamm



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FATE TWISTER
The Story of Wayne Gamm

This is the story of  how a boy, born to White Witches on a remote Welsh sheep farm in
north Wales, struggles to accept and use his power over Fate...

Welsh Cobs and Ponies

Welsh Cobs and PoniesThe Welsh Pony and the Welsh Cob are closely related breed. These horses are loved by those who know them for their good temperament and intelligence, but they are also sure-footed and hardy with bags of stamina. Yet others point to their natural grace which makes them the first choice for many who go in for dressage.

The governing body for these breeds, the Welsh Pony and Cob Society, has established four sections of classification which are determined by the height of the adult animal. They are:

Welsh Mountain Pony: (section A): may not exceed 12 hands, 48" in the UK (12.2 hands in the USA).

Welsh Pony: (Section B): may not exceed 13.2 hands, 54" in the UK (14.2 hands in the USA).

Welsh Pony of Cob Type: (Section C): may not exceed 13.2 hands, 54" in the UK.

Welsh Cob: (Section D): must exceed 13.2 hands, 54" in the UK.

Ponies are known to have existed in Wales before 1600 BC, although the breeds were not entered into a stud book until 1901.

The animal has had a history of being a working horse. It was used in the cavalry, the coal mines, and on the farms for pulling the ploughs, carts and carriages. However, in these days of mechanisation, the Welsh breeds are used mainly for sowing, jumping and driving, as well as pleasure riding, trekking and trail riding, while the smaller ones are beloved by younger riders.

These Welsh ponies could have developed from prehistoric Celtic ponies and probably wandered the British Isles in feral herds. The climate is harsh in Wales and that undoubtedly influenced their ability to withstand the weather and the rough, rocky terrain.

At some point, the Welsh breeds were mixed with Arabian horse, probably on the return of the crusaders from the Middle East in the 15th Century and in the 16 Century, King Henry VIII ordered the slaughter of all Welsh stallions under 15 hands and mares under 13 hands to improve the breeds' use as war horses.

An interesting piece of trivia is that often tradesmen in South Wales would select their animal and then trot it the 35 miles uphill from Cardiff to Dowlais. The horse had to accomplish this run in under three hours without breaking gait.

Distinguishing features of Welsh breeds are they have a small head, large eyes and a solid colour. They also have sloped shoulders, short backs and strong hindquarters.

The Welsh Cobs and Ponies contributed vastly to the stock of horses in the United States. The Welsh breeds left behind by the retreating British forces after the American revolution were used 'as were', but also to start new riding breeds by mixing them with other types. Examples are the Morgan and the Welara.

There is a small semi-feral herd of about 180 horses roaming the Carnedda Mountains in Snowdonia in north Wales.

by +Owen Jones